John as bp. Dunkeld × death of Ralph, ab. Coupar Angus. This appears to have taken place at a major royal assembly, probably at Dunfermline Abbey itself considering the statement about the earl's royal forebears. This charter was witnessed by the king himself, as well as five bishops, three abbots, four earls and several top barons. The royal confirmation of this was dated at Stirling but included two of the bishops and two of the earls who were present at the assembly. It was probably written up soon after this event, and was followed later by another royal confirmation (<em>RRS</em>, ii, nos. 321 (1189×95) and no. 338 (1187×95, but probably after no. 321). The earlier royal confirmation was probably written up in 1189, thus suggesting that the assembly and the earl's charter also took place in that year. The conspicuous absence of Roger, bishop-elect of St Andrews, who was elected at Perth on 13 Apr. 1189, suggests that this assembly may have taken place before this date.