The bishops, abbots, priors, and other clergy of the realm of Scotland, make known that when a dispute arose between John Balliol, lately installed as king of Scotland de facto by the king of England, and the late Robert Bruce, the grandfather of Robert who is now king, concerning which of them had the better title, by right of birth, to inherit the rule over the people of Scotland, the faithful people always believed that Robert, the grandfather, was the true heir after the death of King Alexander and of his granddaughter, the daughter of the king of Norway. The whole people of the realm of Scotland, wearied by the stings of many tribulations – for this John was taken by the king of England and imprisoned and deprived of his realm and people – agreed on Lord Robert who now is king, the rights of his father and his grandfather to the kingdom; and with their knowledge and approval he was received as king, that he might reform the defects of the realm. By their authority he was set over the realm, and formally established as king of Scots. If anyone defends his claim to the realm by producing sealed letters from the past, which record the consent of the whole people, be it known that this entire business was in fact carried through by force and violence which nobody could then resist. They therefore have sworn fealty due to lord Robert, their king of Scotland and agree and bear witness by the text of this document that the same should be done to him and his heirs.